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General Approval Order
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Well Site and Tank Battery
The Division of Air Quality (DAQ) has issued an Intent to Approve (ITA) for a General Approval Order (GAO) for crude oil and natural gas well sites and tank batteries. The public comment period runs from February 25, 2014 to close of business on March 29, 2014. DAQ may change the proposed conditions of the approval order on the basis of the comments received.
Additional documentation, including the GAO engineering review, nitrogen dioxide modeling evaluation, emission calculations, reports and analyses, preliminary input, and supporting information, are available for public review.
Division of Air Quality
195 North 1950 West
Salt Lake City, Utah, 84114
GAO for Well Sites and Tank Batteries
DAQ intends to approve a GAO for a crude oil and natural gas well site and/or tank battery. This GAO will cover a facility that processes up to 50,000 barrels of crude oil and condensate (gaseous vapors) combined over a rolling 12-month period. Conditions in the GAO reflect a modeling analysis for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions and ensure protection of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Emission controls and equipment specifications limit criteria pollutant and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. If a source cannot meet the requirements in this GAO, it must submit a Notice of Intent (NOI) and obtain an Approval Order.
The GAO contains specific conditions and requirements for well sites and equipment.
Product fluid storage tanks contain crude oil, condensate, and/or produced water (water produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations). Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions must be routed to a process unit where the emissions are recycled, incorporated into a product, or routed to a VOC control device for consumption or destruction. Operators must inspect thief hatches (openings in the top of the tank) at least once a month to ensure they are closed and in good working condition. Maximum individual tank capacity is 550 barrels and maximum site-wide capacity is 2,200 barrels.
Dehydrators remove water and water vapors from natural gas. VOC and HAP emissions from the dehydrators must be routed to a process unit where the emissions are recycled, incorporated into a product, or routed to a VOC control device for consumption or destruction.
VOC Control Devices
Any VOC control device shall have a control/destruction efficiency of no less than 98 percent. Control devices must be operated and maintained according to the manufacturer's instructions and operate with no visible emissions.
Natural Gas-Driven Pneumatic Controllers
Pneumatic controllers use natural gas to transmit a process signal that controls the position of the valves that regulate and monitor pressure, gas and liquid flow and levels, and temperature levels in equipment and tanks. These controllers must either have a gas bleed rate less than or equal to 6 standard cubic feet per hour or route VOC emissions to a process unit where the emissions are recycled, incorporated into a product, recovered , or routed to a VOC control device for consumption or destruction.
Natural Gas-Driven Pneumatic Pumps
Pneumatic pumps must either have a gas bleed rate less than or equal to 6 standard cubic feet per hour or route VOC emissions to a process unit where the emissions are recycled, incorporated into a product, recovered , or routed a VOC control device for consumption or destruction.
Owners/operators must load tanker trucks on site using either submerged loading or bottom-filled loading to reduce emissions.
Stationary engines on site must use natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel. Engines must comply with emission standards specified in the GAO.
- For engines rated less than 100 horsepower (hp): hydrocarbons (HC) + nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO)
- For engines rated greater than or equal to 100 hp: nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and VOCs
Owners/operators must maintain engines according to manufacturer instructions and keep records on maintenance activities. Each stationary engine stack shall vent no less than 4 feet above ground level.
Boilers and heaters on site must use natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuel. Each boiler stack and heater stack must vent at least 1 foot above the height of the storage tanks.
Leak Detection and Repair
Owners/operators must inspect equipment that contains or contacts process steam with hydrocarbons according to a specified schedule. Leak detection inspections will be conducted using an EPA-approved analyzer, a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), or an infrared camera (IRC) that can detect hydrocarbons. Owners/operators must repair leaks within a specified time period and are required to keep records of inspections, leak detection, and repairs.