Suggested Sampling Procedure and Analytical Methods

Cyanotoxin Sampling

Sampling Details

  • Handling – follow collection and handling procedures established by method or laboratory
  • Lab Analysis – use lab-provided sample containers
  • Containers – typically amber glass
  • Quenching – quench (usually with sodium thiosulfate) immediately upon sampling if exposed to oxidants
  • Cooling – cool on ice (4° C) immediately after collection, during shipping, and pending analysis
  • Holding Time – analyze within 5 days of collection
  • More Info – USGS Guidelines for Design and Sampling for Cyanobacterial Toxin and Taste-and-Odor Studies in Lakes and Reservoirs (2008)

Acceptable Analytical Methods for Cyanotoxins

Microcystins

Analytical Method Source Water Raw Water Finished Water – Investigation Finished Water – Compliance
ELISA Cylindrospermopsin Method Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable
LC/ESI-MS/MS Method 545 Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable ?
Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Detection of Cylindrospermopsin Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Not Acceptable

Cylindrospermopsin

Analytical Method Source Water Raw Water Finished Water – Investigation Finished Water – Compliance
ELISA Cylindrospermopsin Method Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable
LC/ESI-MS/MS Method 545 Not Acceptable Not Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable
Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Detection of Cylindrospermopsin Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Not Acceptable

Saxitoxins

Analytical Method Source Water Raw Water Finished Water – Investigation Finished Water – Compliance
ELISA Saxitoxin Method Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable
LC-MS/MS Method for detection of 12 saxitoxin variants Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable

Anatoxin-a

Analytical Method Source Water Raw Water Finished Water – Investigation Finished Water – Compliance
LC/ESI-MS/MS Method 545 Not Acceptable Not Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable
Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Detection of Anatoxin-a Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Not Acceptable