In the period 1994 to 1996 a survey of 94 x-ray units in medical facilities in Utah that perform C-Spine x-ray procedures was completed by the Division. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate exposure to a “Standard Man”. The figures below are the summaries of exposures obtained from this survey.
If you have additional questions regarding X-rays, please contact a member of the X-ray staff at (801) 536-4250 or you may contact us through email.
C-spine Entrance Skin Exposures
The information is expressed as the percentage of x-ray units which had exposures within a certain range. For example approximately 27% of the units surveyed gave an ESE in the 50 to 74 mR range. An average ESE was 63 mR. 15% of the units gave ESE greater than 110 mR!!
PA Chest Entrance Skin Exposures
The information is expressed as the percentage of x-ray units which had exposure within a certain range. For example 30 % of the units surveyed gave an ESE in the 10 to 14 mR range. 12% of the units gave exposures greater that 30 mR! The minimum ESE was 1.2 mR; the maximum was 122.0 mR, with an average ESE of 18.6 mR.
Dental Bite-Wing Entrance Skin Exposures
The information is expressed as the percentage of x-ray units which exhibited ESE within certain ranges. For example 8% of the units gave ESE values in the range of 300 to 349 mR. For the survey the average ESE was 247 mR. Of the x-ray units surveyed 15% gave ESE greater than 342 mR!!
If you have additional questions regarding X-rays, please contact a member of the X-ray staff at (801) 536-0200 or via email.
AP Lumbo-sacral Spine Entrance Skin Exposures
Each year, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), and state radiation control programs conduct a Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of a specific radiographic examination at randomly selected facilities across the nation. Data is collected by state inspectors using a standard protocol. The data is submitted to and evaluated by the FDA. The findings are published through the CRCPD, and are used by numerous entities in comparing entrance skin exposures (ESE) within states and between facilities.
On July 1, 1994, the x-ray section began a computerized tracking program for ESE data that was being collected throughout the state. This program allows the Division to compare Utah ESE data with the data found in the NEXT surveys. The attached graphs and charts provide information regarding the AP lumbo-sacral spine radiographic examination collected at hospitals, private practice, and chiropractic facilities for the Utah and NEXT surveys. While the Utah data compares favorably with national data, there are opportunities to help facilities improve their examination procedures to lower patient exposures while producing quality radiographs.
Entrance Skin Exposures AP Lumbo-sacral Spine Radiographic Examinations
|Minimum||1st Quartile||Median||3rd Quartile||Maximum||Mean|
|NEXT 1987 (Hospitals)||62.3 mR||259.7 mR||347.4 mR||518.9 mR||2154 mR||423.6 mR|
|NEXT 1989 (Private Practice)||46.0 mR||259.0 mR||349.9 mR||542.9 mR||2860.2 mR||453.0 mR|
|NEXT 1989 (Chiropractors)||61.3 mR||220.5 mR||357.3 mR||568.0 mR||1575.5 mR||429.0 mR|
|Utah (Private Practice)||59.8 mR||218.5 mR||324.0 mR||434.8 mR||1319.5 mR||378.0 mR|
|Utah (Chiropractors)||48.2 mR||195.0 mR||307.0 mR||535.5 mR||1500.0 mR||402.2 mR|